Castle is a fortress in central Bohemia, Czech Republic, on a cliff above the River
Berounka, about 30 km south-west of Prague.
It was built by Charles
IV, Holy Roman Emperor, to protect the crown jewels and state treasure of the Empire, and its
unique design was greatly influenced by the presence of the holy relics.
It retains much of its
important programme of painted decoration. The foundation stone was laid on 10 June 1348 by
Arnošt of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague, and by 1355 the Emperor was already living there. In
1357 he founded the castle chapel, and in the same year two chapels—to the Stigmata and the
Karlštejn Castle Architecture
The core of the castle lies behind a massive
inner wall with the outer castle in front of it; there are two gates and an independently
fortified residential quarter with a moat and well tower. The buildings of the inner castle
(the palace, Church Tower and Great Tower) are built on three stepped terraces, the design
reflecting Karlštejn’s special function.
On the lowest terrace stands the rectangular
imperial palace, the internal design of which is related to a type created in Bohemia in the
second half of the 13th century, with three floors, each with a series of rooms. West of the
central hall there is always a wood-panelled chamber and to the east a parlour.
The second floor was the Emperor’s apartment,
comprising a large central hall with a flat, wooden ceiling, linked to the adjacent study on
the east, and the tower chapel of St Nicholas. The top floor contained the Empress’s
apartments. From the second floor a bridge leads to the first floor of the Church Tower on the
second terrace. This is a two-storey rectangular building, the second floor of which originally
contained a hall with a wooden ceiling. An oriel chapel with two rib-vaulted bays is let into
the south wall. This was at first the Emperor’s private oratory, where important relics were
kept; but when the chapter was founded in 1357, the southern half of the hall was converted to
the church of the Virgin (sometimes called the Lady Chapel), while the oratory was temporarily
dedicated to the Stigmata, as recorded in the consecration of both chapels in the same year.
Subsequently, however, the oratory was rededicated to St Catherine.
The crowning feature of the castle is the
huge, rectangular, three-storey Great Tower on the highest terrace. Accessible from the second
floor of the Church Tower, it has exceptionally massive masonry and is protected by its own
fortification wall. A staircase on the south side leads to the second floor and the most sacred
room in Karlštejn, the chapel of the Holy Cross, consecrated in 1365. It is a spacious
rectangular chapel with two bays of rib vaulting. This chapel was ultimately dedicated to the
Stigmata, and became the repository of the imperial crown jewels.
The Emperor himself may well have had a hand
in the design of Karlštejn, drawing inspiration partly from the royal residences in Paris. The
master mason was evidently local, trained in Bohemia in the second quarter of the 14th century:
the influence of Peter Parler is not seen until the final phases of building. Painting
continued after construction was finished. In the 16th century the castle was renovated in a
Renaissance style, to be restored to Gothic under the direction ofJosef Mocker from 1887 to
Castle Visitor info
Castle (Hrad Karlštejn) is located about 30 km south-west of Prague.
You can reach Karlštejn by taking the E50 road from Prague. You can also take a train from
Prague’s main station. The train trip will take about 40 minutes.
Entrance inside the
castle’s walls is free, but to enter inside the castle itself, you have to buy a ticket,
currently priced at 270 Czech Koronas (around 11 EUR) for adults. Childrens, students and
seniors over 65 pay only 180 CZK.
Karlstejn Castle is usually closed on Mondays but there are
To make sure the castle is open, please consult their website at: http://www.hradkarlstejn.cz/opening-hours/
All three of the main
buildings at Karlštejn were richly decorated with wall paintings, panel paintings and, to a
lesser extent, stained glass. Painting began with the building programme and reflected the
changing function of the rooms. The most important areas were decorated in gold relief stucco
with encrusted hardstones.
The decoration of the
imperial palace has not survived, but there were at least two interesting cycles of wall
paintings. The first, mentioned in the Chronicle of Bohemia (1358) by Giovanni Marignolli,
Bishop of Bisignano (d 1359), depicted the Miracle of the Finger of St Nicholas, which occurred
in 1353 in the Franciscan convent in Prague.
It was painted in the
Emperor’s chamber (probably near the palace chapel) and was evidently the earliest painted
decoration. Of utmost importance was the so-called Luxemburg Genealogy painted in the main hall
of the palace after 1355, depicting about 65 fictitious and actual members of the family,
starting with Noah and ending with Charles IV.
The Genealogy is
documented in the Chronica nobilissimorum ducum Lotharingiae et Brabantiae ac regum Francorum
(1413; Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert 1er) byEdmond de Dynter (d 1448), old descriptions of the
castle and two copies of c. 1575 (the Codex Heidelbergensis, Prague, N.G., Convent of St
George; Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., MS. 8330).
Two altarpieces, signed by
Tomaso da Modena and probably painted from 1355 or soon after, were originally housed either in
the palace or in the Church Tower: the triptych depicting the Virgin with SS Wenceslas and
Palmatius (moved to the chapel of the Holy Cross in 1365) and the diptych with the Virgin and
Child, Man of Sorrows and the Archangels Michael and Gabriel (found during the 19th century in
the church of St Palmác in the lower castle, now in the church of the
The oldest wall paintings
of the Church Tower have survived, some painted before the consecration of 1357: in the altar
niche of St Catherine’s Chapel is a votive picture of the Virgin and Child, with SS Peter and
Paul on the sides of the niche. The altar frontal bears a Crucifixionwith St Catherine at the
side. Above the entrance to the chapel, the Emperor and Empress are depicted holding the
reliquary cross, and on the side wall below the vault are the remains of the figures of SS
Vitus and four
unidentified saints holding the relics of the Holy Cross. The painted decoration was partly
destroyed when the walls were covered in an encrustation of hardstones and nails to secure the
relics. The window contains the only surviving glass painting at Karlštejn, a Crucifixion (c.
1360), and in the so-called connecting corridor is a wall painting of an angel with a
In the adjoining chapel of
the Virgin (formerly the hall) there were originally four cycles of wall paintings, all dating
from after 1357, of which only one has survived: the Relic Scenes showing Charles IV accepting,
from two different rulers, the relics of Christ’s Passion and placing them into a reliquary
cross. The second, partly destroyed cycle, which occupies much of the remaining walls, depicts
scenes from the Apocalypse.
The third cycle,
originally above some of theApocalypse scenes, is lost, but it depicted the Holy Trinity,
Prophets and Apostles, set between figures of Charles IV and his first three wives, Blanche of
Valois (1317–48), Anne of the Palatinate (1329–53) and Anne of Svidnica
The fourth cycle consisted
of small Christological and Marian scenes in the window embrasures, remains of which survive.
Also belonging to this group is a badly decayed, illusionistic picture of four people looking
out of a window and a jewelled box with relics of the Passion and the Virgin.
Charles IV paid most
attention to the decoration of the chapel of the Holy Cross in the Great Tower. The niche
containing the crown jewels above the altar is concealed behind Tomaso da Modena’s triptych.The
vaults are covered with gold leaf and gilded glass, and the lower walls encrusted with
hardstones, as in St Catherine’s Chapel.
The upper walls contain
nearly 130 half-length figures of saints painted on framed panels, originally with relics fixed
to their frames: a crocodile’s head, probably thought to be a relic of St George, was found in
the wall. Five panels showing only the preliminary sketches are preserved. Under the vault on
the altar wall is depicted the Crucifixion
The windows were
originally glazed with hardstones; the embrasures contain the remains of the cycles of the Life
of the Virginand Life of Christ , and scenes of the Revelation, including the Adoration of the
Lamb and the apocalyptic God with angels and Evangelist symbols. The Emperor’s painter, Master
Theodoric, was paid for the decoration of the chapel in 1367.
The staircase of the Great
Tower had three cycles of paintings, finished after 1370 and now crudely painted over and
copied on to new plaster: the first depicted the Life of St Ludmilla, the second the Life of St
Wenceslas, and the third showed Czech rulers and other important historical figures. Over the
entrance to the chapel of the Holy Cross, Charles IV was shown standing before the reliquary
cross and reading a book, in the presence of the Empress and the heir to the throne, the future
Wenceslas IV, his wife and high ecclesiastical office-holders. The vault was decorated with
angels holding musical instruments. Even here relics were found bricked up in the
The decorative programme
at Karlštejn expressed Charles’s personal and dynastic ambitions while publicizing his
interpretation of imperial power and the cult of religious relics. Except for the altars by
Tomaso da Modena, the decoration is by artists who came to the Prague imperial court from the
west, and whose main work was apparently the lost decoration of Prague Castle.
These painters laid the
basis of the flourishing school of Bohemian painting in the second half of the 14th century.
The wall and panel paintings of Karlštejn are of superb quality, with sophisticated colouring,
the use of light and shade in drapery forms and naturalistic physiognomies.
The lost Luxemburg Genealogy and paintings in the Church
Tower were by several different painters. The so-called Masters of the Genealogy apparently
worked in a style influenced by French court paintings and specialized in ‘portraiture’. The
Relic Scenes in the church of the Virgin are usually attributed to the same painters. The
painter of the Apocalypse is presumed to be independent of this group. The part played by other
artists cannot safely be determined.
Karlštejn Castle Map
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Karlštejn Castle Photos
Karlštejn Castle Czech Republic
Karlštejn Castle Town View
Karlstein Airplane View
Karlstein Castle Architecture
Karlstein Castle Green Area
Karlstejn Chapel Crisis (1878)
Karstejn Castle Tower
Karlstein Castle Tower Flag
Charles IV King of Bohemia & Anne of Świdnica
his 3rd wife
Convent of Saint Agnes of Bohemia, Art collection: Painting of Carolus Magnus
(1360-1364) originally from Karlštejn Castle
Charles IV painting - Karlstejn Castle
Old Karlstejn castle painting
The Masters of the Genealogy
worked on other paintings in Karlštejn, notably the sketches for panel paintings and some
of the wall paintings in the chapel of the Holy Cross. The panels and the remaining wall
paintings in this chapel were by younger painters. The decoration of the chapel of the
Holy Cross was the culmination of the so-called Soft style, the later panels and wall
paintings showing a move towards new concepts of space and more slender figures. This new
style took over in the staircase paintings, which were the immediate predecessors of the
paintings from the second half of the 1370s in Prague
The Emperor’s painter, Nicholas
Wurmser of Strasbourg, was clearly involved in the first campaign of decoration. He is
often identified as the main Master of the Genealogy or as theMaster of the Apocalypse.
Wurmser had an estate in the village of Mořina, near Karlštejn, as did the Emperor’s
second painter, Master Theodoric. The latter is accredited mainly with panel paintings in
the chapel of the Holy Cross, but if the panel painters were merely assistants to the
masters of the preliminary sketches, Theodoric could also have helped on the Genealogy.
The staircase cycles are usually attributed to Master Osvald, on the assumption that he
worked on Karlštejn before going to Prague Cathedral. Despite the literature on the
paintings of Karlštejn, a number of questions remain